"[44], The combined effect of Duncan's orders was to split his fleet into two uneven divisions, each sailing in a loose formation towards the unified Dutch line. The Battle of Camperdown, 11 October 1797. The crew fitted jury masts, but they too collapsed and the hull flooded to a depth of 14 feet (4.3 m). As a result, Williamson was accused of failing to do his duty by Captain Hopper of Agincourt's Royal Marines and court-martialled on 4 December 1797, at Sheerness aboard Circe, on the charges of "disobedience to signals and not going into action" and "cowardice and disaffection". [72] The prize crew left on the second rescue boat sent from Russell, and Bullen and Heilberg waited for a third trip to bring them off with the remaining 30 wounded men and three junior Dutch officers who had also elected to stay. The subject here is the decisive moment in the battle of Camperdown, off the Dutch coast, in 1797. Assailed from both sea and land, the remainder of the Dutch Navy under Admiral Story capitulated without a fight: in what became known as the Vlieter Incident, the political divisions between the officers and seamen resulted in a mutiny during which the Dutch sailors threw their ammunition overboard. [54], The Battle of Camperdown, Philip de Loutherbourg, 1799, Tate Gallery, Following Onslow's victory over the Dutch rearguard, the admiral ordered the least damaged of his ships to sail in support of the outnumbered British ships in the melee at the Dutch van. In the centre of the picture, in starboard-quarter view, is Duncan's flagship the 'Venerable', 74 guns in action with the Dutch Vice-Admiral J. W. de Winter's 'Vrijheid', 74 guns, shown to port. When the Dutch fleet returned to the Dutch coast on 11 October, Duncan was waiting, and intercepted De Winter off the coastal village of Camperduin. [24] He was subsequently joined by two additional ships, HMS Russell and HMS Sans Pareil,[25] and on the fourth day, with conditions still perfect for the Dutch, he anchored his squadron in the Marsdiep channel and gave orders for them to fight until their ships sank, thereby blocking the channel. The French Republic had overrun the Dutch Republic two years earlier, reforming it into the Batavian Republic. [78] Five decades later the battle was among the actions recognised by a clasp attached to the Naval General Service Medal, awarded upon application to all British participants still living in 1847. Despite his initial success, Duncan was unable to retain control in the face of a more widespread revolt on 15 May among the ships based at the Nore, which became known as the Nore Mutiny. Williams successfully raked his opponent twice, but the complicated tides of the Dutch coast dragged his ship out of range at 17:30 before he could press his attack any further. Mark this image as a favourite. He also attributed overwhelming British numbers to his defeat and suggested that he may have captured some of the British fleet if he had been better supported. Following the award of the first £10,000 instalment, Duncan was given the unique honour of permission to buy shares on the London Stock Exchange at ⅞ market price.[88]. The Battle of Camperdown 1798. Adam Duncan, 1st Viscount Duncan, Henri-Pierre Danloux, pre-1809, National Portrait Gallery. [51], The Dutch central division joined the battle at the head of the line shortly after the engagement of Triumph and Bedford, causing considerable damage to all of the British vessels, particularly Venerable. The Battle of Camperdown, 11 October 1797. Captured at 14:00 but subsequently wrecked on the Dutch coast, This page was last edited on 5 July 2020, at 19:29. [32], De Winter had originally intended to close his line up into a solid defensive platform and retreat to shallower waters while Duncan formed his own line of battle, but the sudden, disorganised British attack had thrown his plans into confusion. [30] Wolfe Tone wrote in frustration that "The destiny of Europe might have been changed for ever . Admiral Onslow was made a baronet and Captains Henry Trollope and William George Fairfax were knighted. [1] Shortly afterwards, the British fleets were paralysed by the Spithead and Nore mutinies, in which the sailors refused to take their ships to sea until they were awarded better pay and conditions. [45] De Winter gave urgent orders for the van and centre to drop back to assist the rear, but there was little time and his situation looked desperate: although the Dutch and British lines each mustered 16 ships, the British vessels were almost all larger and more strongly built than their Dutch counterparts and their crews were experienced seamen in the heavy weather conditions while the Dutch crews, confined to port for the previous year, had little understanding of the skills required in combat at sea. [2] The flurry of orders was so quick and contradictory that at least one captain gave up entirely: the Scottish Captain John Inglis of HMS Belliqueux threw his signal book to the deck in frustration and shouted "Up wi' the hel'lem and gang into the middle o't! The southern or leeward division comprised eight third rate ships of the line and the repeater frigate HMS Beaulieu, and was led by Vice-Admiral Richard Onslow on HMS Monarch. { ORDER OF BATTLE AT THE BATTLE OF CAMPERDOWN } By Surhone, Lambert M ( Author ) [ May - 2011 ] [ Paperback ] | Surhone, Lambert M | ISBN: | Kostenloser Versand für alle Bücher mit Versand und Verkauf duch Amazon. At 11:53, Duncan raised the signal for each ship to pass through the Dutch line and attack from the far side, but the poor weather prevented the more distant ships from recognising the signal. First captured at 14:00, subsequently rejoined the combat and was captured again. WikiMatrix. In early 1797, the Batavian Navy was ordered to sail to Brest and unite with the French Atlantic Fleet in preparation for an invasion of Ireland. The Dutch tried to lure the British commander on to the shoals, but he accepted the risk, chased them, and captured nine ships. Among the dead were Captain Burges of Ardent and two lieutenants, while the wounded included Captain Essington of Triumph and twelve lieutenants. As the Dutch fleet attempted to reach shallower waters in an effort to escape the British attack, the British leeward division joined the windward combat and eventually forced the surrender of the Dutch flagship Vrijheid and ten other ships. Cut off from food supplies and with public support decidedly against the mutiny, Parker issued threats that the ships under his control would be handed over to the French government. [26] While Duncan had been at sea, the Nore Mutiny had acrimoniously fallen apart under blockade by government forces. [24] Their arrival off Texel on 6 October coincided with De Winter's much delayed expedition. At 16:30, Endymion closed with the larger, but damaged, Dutch ship and opened fire, Brutus responding with a broadside of its own. Camperdown 1.PNG 910 × 700; 4 KB. Throughout the year the British Admiral Adam Duncan had been stationed watching the Dutch fleet in Den Helder. [70] On 13 October, Duncan completed his official despatch and sent it ahead of his wallowing ships with Captain William George Fairfax on the cutter Rose: he praised all of his men, reserving special mention for Trollope and the late Burges, whom he called a "good and gallant Officer . Captured at 15:00, later became HMS, Hull very badly damaged and ship dismasted. Tone joined the staff of Vice-Admiral Jan de Winter on his flagship Vrijheid in the Texel and 13,500 Dutch troops were equipped in preparation for the operation, the fleet waiting only for the best moment to take advantage of westerly winds and sweep past the British blockade and down the English Channel. Duncan refused the weapon, instead shaking De Winter's hand and insisting "I would much rather take a brave man's hand than his sword". 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